The support vector regression (SVR) is a supervised machine learning technique that has been successfully employed to forecast financial volatility. As the SVR is a kernel-based technique, the choice of the kernel has a great impact on its forecasting accuracy. Empirical results show that SVRs with hybrid kernels tend to beat single-kernel models in terms of forecasting accuracy. Nevertheless, no application of hybrid kernel SVR to financial volatility forecasting has been performed in previous researches. Given that the empirical evidence shows that the stock market oscillates between several possible regimes, in which the overall distribution of returns it is a mixture of normals, we attempt to find the optimal number of mixture of Gaussian kernels that improve the one-period-ahead volatility forecasting of SVR based on GARCH(1,1). The forecast performance of a mixture of one, two, three and four Gaussian kernels are evaluated on the daily returns of Nikkei and Ibovespa indexes and compared with SVR–GARCH with Morlet wavelet kernel, standard GARCH, Glosten–Jagannathan–Runkle (GJR) and nonlinear EGARCH models with normal, student-t, skew-student-t and generalized error distribution (GED) innovations by using mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and robust Diebold–Mariano test. The results of the out-of-sample forecasts suggest that the SVR–GARCH with a mixture of Gaussian kernels can improve the volatility forecasts and capture the regime-switching behavior.
Bezerra, P.C.S. & Albuquerque, P.H.M. Comput Manag Sci (2016). doi:10.1007/s10287-016-0267-0
Computational Management Science